systemarchi
© 2009 - 2018 Systemarchitects Partnership

Design for Climate Change in Jakarta, Indonesia

Building Dignity - A participatory, values-based, integrated and

strategic concept for climate change-risks mitigation in informal

settlements in North Jakarta (2009)

Introduction

Jakarta is a "mega city gone wrong" (Teymor Nabili in Al Jazeera "101 East"). In fact, the city faces major challenges today: waste management, traffic and housing, all threatened additionally by climate change related risks. Overpopulation is probably the main origin and yearly flooding emergencies one of the consequences. By 2015, Jakarta will be the 8th largest city in the world. The UN Habitat programme "Cities without Slums" reported that worldwide one of three urban inhabitants lives in so-called slums. The Indonesian Land Agency counts 180 000 families of squatters in Jakarta, 71 000 of which live on the sides of city rivers. Most of these squatters make a living as low qualified craftsmen in factories, as scavengers, domestic workers or cleaners.

Existing situation

informal settlements around Pademangan and Ancol in North Jakarta The informal settlements around Pademangan and Ancol in North Jakarta summarise the current urban challenges in the entire city. The most vulnerable zones are the communities located along the railway lines, under the elevated motorways and the ones along water streams and canals. Regenerating squatter communities has to include the creation of opportunities for its residents, it has to ensure they get and keep ownership of their land and it has to include their say and their participation. It must not be limited to enhancing living conditions and providing the least basic needs. Regeneration should consider environmental, economical and social aspects and suggest an integral combination of these issues, turning them into opportunities with measures that may be applied not only in the regenerated sites. In general terms, the holistic approach followed for this area includes recording the residents' demography (poverty map), upgrading and creating social-economic conditions, facilitating connectivity, revitalising their public space and reducing their overall vulnerability. Relocation is not considered necessary neither desirable.

Vulnerability and the need of mainstreaming strategies in Jakarta

Vulnerability and risks A geodatabase was designed to collide secondary data (left) and perform a general vulnerability assessment (right). The results confirmed the initial assumptions about how exposure to climate change risks and vulnerability are especially severe within informal settlements. A study developed by the Bandung Institute of Technology in 2012 confirmed the results of the vulnerability assessment in North Jakarta (Simarmata, H.A., Sianturi, H.C.J.A., Yudono, K., Jakarta) Storm water and Waste Management Each of the 9 million citizens of Jakarta produces 2,9 l of waste each day. Much of this waste is illegally dumped, clogs and contaminates water streams and accumulates under bridges, causing the drainage system to operate at 50-70% of its capacity and affecting even the railway safety. 70% of Jakarta's is organic, useful for composting, which reduces contamination of soil, natural aquatic areas and water supply.  However, a missing waste- and stormwater management strategy feeds a spiral that needs urgent solutions. Housing The city government announced recently that 24 000 families would be forced to leave illegal squatter sites in North Jakarta, to provide space for green areas. Having nowhere to go and joining more than 100 000 new migrants each year, the arbitrary eviction without alternatives feeds another spiral of poverty. Whatever the solution planners come up with in Jakarta, it must be right. The price of failure now would be too high. Transport The overcrowded roads and public transport systems (including massive systems like buses in dedicated lines and trains) collapse daily during peak times. Jakarta lacks a proper network of pedestrian and cycling routes to reduce overuse of motorised vehicles and consequent emissions. The proposed layout combines densities, activities and public space revitalization [1] semi public courtyards with permeable greenways and rainwater collecting features [2] public places with amenity space and commercial activity infrastructure in mixed use zones [3] all dwellings are located within max. 10 minutes walk to the next public transportation. Climate adapted architecture reduces energy use. [4] residential areas with housing surrounding green courtyards that provide meeting places to support "gotong royong"

Integral strategy description: Resilience through planning and

participation

(together with sketches) Social Strategies The central public facilities (1) are multi-purpose centres, which are built to represent a social backbone for the neighbours. They accommodate activities, discussion, information and provide work (community projects, handicraft workshops, training centres, kindergartens, information centres, libraries, theatres. The supported networks shall help to strengthen democracy, support participation and fight corruption, supporting the traditional Malay Kampung concept implemented here. A further social backbone is the shared courtyard (2). These semiprivate areas are meant to be used for connecting neighbours, creating bounds of confidence, develop a strong community living sense and provide a sense of security. Environmental Strategies Community Waste Management Waste is implemented at neighbourhood level with strategic recycling and reusing of solid waste as an alternative to human scavenging in Jakarta. Furniture and reusable domestic appliances for repairing and resale or safe disposal will reduce e-waste contamination, benefit the low- income population and generate jobs. Dedicated facilities are planned in central locations in the neighbourhoods. Organic waste is collected in biodigesters (3) to produce heat and energy with biogas. The sub- product can be used as natural fertilizer for the central urban farming area (4), as well as for city gardening. Green corridors (5) with endemic vegetation allow rainwater to filter naturally into the soil and recharge natural aquifers, providing shadow and a natural cooling effect. These corridors are safe for pedestrians and cyclists, which improves connectivity. At the same time they are access routes for emergency services. Economic Strategies The upgrading of informal settlements will deliver new economic activity through training and employing of residents for construction and management of houses and public facilities, developing skills on waste management, gardening and urban farming. A massive support of bicycle use (providing safe and exciting connectivity) will generate a new economy branch of manufacture, sale, repairing, renting and sharing bikes and related services and supplies, which later can cover the whole city. Street vendors are relocated in mixed use areas (6) with adequate infrastructure for their activity, increasing their income and enabling tax revenue.
RESEARCH FOR CLIMATE CHANGE
© 2006 - 2015 Systemarchi

Design for Climate

Change in Jakarta,

Indonesia

Building Dignity - A

participatory, values-based,

integrated and strategic

concept for climate change-

risks mitigation in informal

settlements in North Jakarta

(2009)

Introduction

Jakarta is a "mega city gone wrong" (Teymor Nabili in Al Jazeera "101 East"). In fact, the city faces major challenges today: waste management, traffic and housing, all threatened additionally by climate change related risks. Overpopulation is probably the main origin and yearly flooding emergencies one of the consequences. By 2015, Jakarta will be the 8th largest city in the world. The UN Habitat programme "Cities without Slums" reported that worldwide one of three urban inhabitants lives in so- called slums. The Indonesian Land Agency counts 180 000 families of squatters in Jakarta, 71 000 of which live on the sides of city rivers. Most of these squatters make a living as low qualified craftsmen in factories, as scavengers, domestic workers or cleaners.

Existing situation

informal settlements around Pademangan and Ancol in North Jakarta The informal settlements around Pademangan and Ancol in North Jakarta summarise the current urban challenges in the entire city. The most vulnerable zones are the communities located along the railway lines, under the elevated motorways and the ones along water streams and canals. Regenerating squatter communities has to include the creation of opportunities for its residents, it has to ensure they get and keep ownership of their land and it has to include their say and their participation. It must not be limited to enhancing living conditions and providing the least basic needs. Regeneration should consider environmental, economical and social aspects and suggest an integral combination of these issues, turning them into opportunities with measures that may be applied not only in the regenerated sites. In general terms, the holistic approach followed for this area includes recording the residents' demography (poverty map), upgrading and creating social- economic conditions, facilitating connectivity, revitalising their public space and reducing their overall vulnerability. Relocation is not considered necessary neither desirable.

Vulnerability and the need of

mainstreaming strategies in

Jakarta

Vulnerability and risks A geodatabase was designed to collide secondary data (left) and perform a general vulnerability assessment (right). The results confirmed the initial assumptions about how exposure to climate change risks and vulnerability are especially severe within informal settlements. A study developed by the Bandung Institute of Technology in 2012 confirmed the results of the vulnerability assessment in North Jakarta (Simarmata, H.A., Sianturi, H.C.J.A., Yudono, K., Jakarta) Storm water and Waste Management Each of the 9 million citizens of Jakarta produces 2,9 l of waste each day. Much of this waste is illegally dumped, clogs and contaminates water streams and accumulates under bridges, causing the drainage system to operate at 50-70% of its capacity and affecting even the railway safety. 70% of Jakarta's is organic, useful for composting, which reduces contamination of soil, natural aquatic areas and water supply.  However, a missing waste- and stormwater management strategy feeds a spiral that needs urgent solutions. Housing The city government announced recently that 24 000 families would be forced to leave illegal squatter sites in North Jakarta, to provide space for green areas. Having nowhere to go and joining more than 100 000 new migrants each year, the arbitrary eviction without alternatives feeds another spiral of poverty. Whatever the solution planners come up with in Jakarta, it must be right. The price of failure now would be too high. Transport The overcrowded roads and public transport systems (including massive systems like buses in dedicated lines and trains) collapse daily during peak times. Jakarta lacks a proper network of pedestrian and cycling routes to reduce overuse of motorised vehicles and consequent emissions. The proposed layout combines densities, activities and public space revitalization [1] semi public courtyards with permeable greenways and rainwater collecting features [2] public places with amenity space and commercial activity infrastructure in mixed use zones [3] all dwellings are located within max. 10 minutes walk to the next public transportation. Climate adapted architecture reduces energy use. [4] residential areas with housing surrounding green courtyards that provide meeting places to support "gotong royong"

Integral strategy description:

Resilience through planning

and participation

(together with sketches) Social Strategies The central public facilities (1) are multi-purpose centres, which are built to represent a social backbone for the neighbours. They accommodate activities, discussion, information and provide work (community projects, handicraft workshops, training centres, kindergartens, information centres, libraries, theatres. The supported networks shall help to strengthen democracy, support participation and fight corruption, supporting the traditional Malay Kampung concept implemented here. A further social backbone is the shared courtyard (2). These semiprivate areas are meant to be used for connecting neighbours, creating bounds of confidence, develop a strong community living sense and provide a sense of security. Environmental Strategies Community Waste Management Waste is implemented at neighbourhood level with strategic recycling and reusing of solid waste as an alternative to human scavenging in Jakarta. Furniture and reusable domestic appliances for repairing and resale or safe disposal will reduce e-waste contamination, benefit the low-income population and generate jobs. Dedicated facilities are planned in central locations in the neighbourhoods. Organic waste is collected in biodigesters (3) to produce heat and energy with biogas. The sub- product can be used as natural fertilizer for the central urban farming area (4), as well as for city gardening. Green corridors (5) with endemic vegetation allow rainwater to filter naturally into the soil and recharge natural aquifers, providing shadow and a natural cooling effect. These corridors are safe for pedestrians and cyclists, which improves connectivity. At the same time they are access routes for emergency services. Economic Strategies The upgrading of informal settlements will deliver new economic activity through training and employing of residents for construction and management of houses and public facilities, developing skills on waste management, gardening and urban farming. A massive support of bicycle use (providing safe and exciting connectivity) will generate a new economy branch of manufacture, sale, repairing, renting and sharing bikes and related services and supplies, which later can cover the whole city. Street vendors are relocated in mixed use areas (6) with adequate infrastructure for their activity, increasing their income and enabling tax revenue.
RESEARCH FOR CLIMATE CHANGE
Systemarchi