systemarchi
© 2009 - 2018 Systemarchitects Partnership

GIS Planning System for Chiquitos

Establishment of a Geographic Information System for the

integral development of the territories of the ancient Missions of

Chiquitos (1999 – 2005)

Introduction

Brief History of the Missions of Chiquitos The Spanish Conquista in today's South American subcontinent established in the 16th century a system of reductions located mainly in the low lands and mostly founded by Jesuits and Franciscans. These settlements should gather indigenous populations in order to christianize them, teach them productive activities like agriculture and handicrafts, and let them get to know and live according to the doctrines of the catholic religion. They founded in today's Bolivian territory ten villages. Today's heritage of the Jesuit Mission time is a culture in which several traditional, religious, native and new involved aspects are present and represent a living heritage. The most representative elements of the former Jesuit Settlements and today's Chiquitos Villages are their temples, which have been restored during the last 25 years and are today protected as national monuments. Six of them, the only original ones, together with their historical settlement cores, build the UNESCO World Heritage Ensemble "Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos". During the restoration of the churches, important positive effects were achieved, such as the dissemination of the idea of conserving and recognizing the historical and artistic heritage and the re-insertion of traditional handicraft. Once necessary for the restorations, they are today an important activity in the villages. The ideal mission A probable distribution of a Jesuit mission in 1750, with temple and production acres for the village, school and tribes houses surrounding a central plaza (sketch by Eckhard Kühne, 1994). Photos Chiquitos today – Rolf Schütt

Chiquitos territory today

The ancient Mission towns are today a very important symbol for the country and are complemented by a surrounding nature of exceptional value, with nature reserves and protected zones with an outstanding biodiversity like the national park Noel Kempf Mercado, inscribed in 2000 in the list of World Natural Heritage Sites. Background Mancomunidad de Municipios de la Gran Chiquitanía In 1999 the municipalities that compose the ethnic and cultural heritage of the ancient Missions of Chiquitos established a network called Mancomunidad de Municipios de la Gran Chiquitanía, a strategic network of cities and communities. It covers an area of 220 000 Km² with a population of aprox. 1,6 M inhabitants. It contains as well abundant natural sites containing important biodiversity hotspots and large water reservoirs. The main goal of the network is to promote a sustainable and integral development for the benefit of their people and region, under the consideration of their cultural and natural values. One of the strategic actions for this network was the design of a management geoinformation system, capable of delivering tools for research, analysis, response and implementation of their day to day activities and programmes. The system was designed in consideration of existing resources, strategic programmes and capacities, and it was accordingly set up to grow along with the development of activities and know how.

Strategic Planning

An important step was the analysis of the institutional and legal framework of the network. A number of schemes was developed as well to understand better the current challenges and the potential of the information system to address them. Existing Challenges Problem Analysis charts based on discussions with stakeholders, authorities and representatives of the public. Analysis of Goals, Strategies and Policies The discussion of concrete objectives led to the design of specific strategies which should deliver a perception what impact is achieved with their implementation. Verifiable indicators should be measurable in established terms. Horizontal Cooperation The network unites 15 municipalities covering an administrative area of around 220 000 Km². Cooperation and technical support agreements with 16 institutions (Ministries, Universities and national and international NGOs) shall enable an inclusive and interdisciplinary work. scheme horizontal cooperation

Case Study Plan Misiones

One of the core institutions operating in the Chiquitania region is Plan Misiones, a non- governmental Organization in charge of the integral rehabilitation of the tangible and intangible cultural heritage of the former Chiquito Missions. The design of the information system for the Chiquitos Network of Municipalities started here as an information and management system for the integral protection of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Missions of Chiquitos". It shall provide a first pilot example of the capabilities of the system. Mass Collaboration & Collective Intelligence The basic idea of the envisioned Data Scheme for the Institutional Network of Chiquitos is to enable in future a virtual project workspace, stored in the cloud, accessible from anywhere for stakeholders to manipulate, update and use in their day to day activities. Open Geospatial Consortium Standards (or similar ones) can be applied to support data standardisation and peer review monitoring. Digital Planning as Instrument The virtual project workspace is just an additional instrument, which shall be adapted to meet the institutional needs of every stakeholder and not viceversa Information sharing for authorities The main motivation behind a coordinated information system is not only to avoid double efforts and reduce costs, but to share information and to make sure their activities are compatible. For the process of decision making in spatial planning it has been too often the case that the planned programmes of different authorities cannot work along each other and this is discovered too late, when making changes and adapting programmes is too expensive and too complicated. Database Management Scheme Information sharing for authorities Distributed responsibilities Each agency has to contribute with feeding micro scale data within their territory and activities. A macro database background covers the entire region and provides a reliable source for all parties. Each agency is responsible with updating data to established standards within its field and is free to use the macro data provided by other stakeholders. Data stored in the database collected in different levels of detail based on needs and capacities of each stakeholder MACRO DB examples: Analysis of development conditions of the Chiquitos Network of Municipalities The initial set up makes it also possible to combine micro and macro data to visualize different conditions and development needs, using information available from the national statistics institute INE, last updated in November 2011: Left: Provision of education infrastructure; Center: General Housing Conditions (Services and infrastructure); Right: Human Development Index 2011 (Average for Bolivia in 2011 was 0.661) (maps example micro data Santa Ana) MICRO GIS DATABASE for Santa Ana de Velasco Being the village Santa Ana de Velasco the smallest one of the World Heritage Ensemble of the "Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos" it was an ideal starting point to test the designed system and provide a pilot database on a micro level. Additionally the system was fed with intangible heritage elements (mainly regarding the cosmology vision of the Chiquitos culture), for which keywords are used to replace geographical coordinates. To this category also belong language, music and popular beliefs. Registry of existing services in Santa Ana The micro database information provides an insight about existing service and sanitary conditions in the whole village, which can be arranged in different categories and displayed for closer analysis. Even though this is a standard urban management task in industrial countries, it had been never done in any city in the entire region. Photographic Registry of cultural heritage The registry also contains a photographic record of all constructions in the historical core of the village, as well as a detailed registry of the most important monuments. Analysis of Conditions and challenges with Macro Level Data (1) Wildlife Reserve Rios Blanco y Negro (1990) Conditions: Area ~1,4M Ha, created as a "natural reserve for sustainable management and use of natural resources", rich biodiversity Challenges: Threats because of illegal logging, indiscriminate hunting and fishing, illegal growth of agricultural surfaces using slash and burn of woodlands with considerable degradation of flora and fauna. (2) Ascension de Guarayos/ Urubichá Current conditions: commercial node in the corridor Santa Cruz - Trinidad, the region embodies a strong local cultural identity. (3) San Javier Conditions: Livestock and agricultural centre, main regional producer of milk and derivatives, commercial node. (4) Concepción Current conditions: Important agriculture and farming centre (livestock), trade, tourism, logistics and mining. (5) San Ignacio de Velasco Current conditions: commercial node for agriculture and forest resources along the corridor Santa Cruz - San Matias, logistic centre of the historic Missions of Chiquitos (6) National Park Noel Kempf (1979) Current Conditons: Area ~1,5M Ha, consolidated with zoning and management plan. Several micro climates, important macro fauna and genetic pool Callenges: Unesco World Heritage Site. Pristine condition in most surface. Species catalogue is not extensive and needs abundant research, it hosts mammal 33 species in danger (including mega  fauna). Human invasion from San Ignacio and the Brazilian border needs to be contained. (7) San Matías Current conditions: Isolated agriculture and farming centre, silviculture and tourism activity. (8) Natural Area San Matias (ANMI, 1997) Conditions: Area ~3M Ha, Pantanal Bio-diversity Hotspot, contains ~100 farms and villages, 3 eco regions Challenges: Need for Zoning and legislation, habitat of species in danger. Need for redesign of limits, possibly creation of a new national park around the region of Sunsás. (9) Puerto Quijarro and Puerto Suárez Current conditions: Commercial centre, important mining activity, inland port. (10) National Park Otuquis (1997) Conditions: Only northern half under research, consolidation in progress. Challenges: Freshwater reserve for Puerto Suárez and Puerto Quijarro, compatibility with eco-tourism and hunting areas needs clear legal framework. (11) Protected Area Tupavaca Valley (2000) Conditions: Bio-diversity Hotspot with micro-climate zones. Challenges: Management plan and redesign of limits need to be completed, the hydrology system is a wildlife corridor influencing the NP Otuquis. (12) San José and Roboré Current conditions: Agricultural and services centre, logistics, intermediate node along the export corridor Bolivia-Brazil (13) National Park and natural area Kaa Iya (1995) Conditions: 3,44M Ha (north limit intersects the Chiquitos Network). World's largest tropical dry forest, mammal species hotspot, consolidated management plan. Challenges: Spatial context affected by climate change phenomena. Area of nomad indigenous tribes. Agriculture and hydrocarbon exploration cause stress and need to be adapted.
GIS & RESEARCH
© 2006 - 2015 Systemarchi

GIS Planning System

for Chiquitos

Establishment of a

Geographic Information

System for the integral

development of the

territories of the ancient

Missions of Chiquitos (1999 –

2005)

Introduction

Brief History of the Missions of Chiquitos The Spanish Conquista in today's South American subcontinent established in the 16th century a system of reductions located mainly in the low lands and mostly founded by Jesuits and Franciscans. These settlements should gather indigenous populations in order to christianize them, teach them productive activities like agriculture and handicrafts, and let them get to know and live according to the doctrines of the catholic religion. They founded in today's Bolivian territory ten villages. Today's heritage of the Jesuit Mission time is a culture in which several traditional, religious, native and new involved aspects are present and represent a living heritage. The most representative elements of the former Jesuit Settlements and today's Chiquitos Villages are their temples, which have been restored during the last 25 years and are today protected as national monuments. Six of them, the only original ones, together with their historical settlement cores, build the UNESCO World Heritage Ensemble "Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos". During the restoration of the churches, important positive effects were achieved, such as the dissemination of the idea of conserving and recognizing the historical and artistic heritage and the re-insertion of traditional handicraft. Once necessary for the restorations, they are today an important activity in the villages. The ideal mission A probable distribution of a Jesuit mission in 1750, with temple and production acres for the village, school and tribes houses surrounding a central plaza (sketch by Eckhard Kühne, 1994). Photos Chiquitos today – Rolf Schütt

Chiquitos territory today

The ancient Mission towns are today a very important symbol for the country and are complemented by a surrounding nature of exceptional value, with nature reserves and protected zones with an outstanding biodiversity like the national park Noel Kempf Mercado, inscribed in 2000 in the list of World Natural Heritage Sites. Background Mancomunidad de Municipios de la Gran Chiquitanía In 1999 the municipalities that compose the ethnic and cultural heritage of the ancient Missions of Chiquitos established a network called Mancomunidad de Municipios de la Gran Chiquitanía, a strategic network of cities and communities. It covers an area of 220 000 Km² with a population of aprox. 1,6 M inhabitants. It contains as well abundant natural sites containing important biodiversity hotspots and large water reservoirs. The main goal of the network is to promote a sustainable and integral development for the benefit of their people and region, under the consideration of their cultural and natural values. One of the strategic actions for this network was the design of a management geoinformation system, capable of delivering tools for research, analysis, response and implementation of their day to day activities and programmes. The system was designed in consideration of existing resources, strategic programmes and capacities, and it was accordingly set up to grow along with the development of activities and know how.

Strategic Planning

An important step was the analysis of the institutional and legal framework of the network. A number of schemes was developed as well to understand better the current challenges and the potential of the information system to address them. Existing Challenges Problem Analysis charts based on discussions with stakeholders, authorities and representatives of the public. Analysis of Goals, Strategies and Policies The discussion of concrete objectives led to the design of specific strategies which should deliver a perception what impact is achieved with their implementation. Verifiable indicators should be measurable in established terms. Horizontal Cooperation The network unites 15 municipalities covering an administrative area of around 220 000 Km². Cooperation and technical support agreements with 16 institutions (Ministries, Universities and national and international NGOs) shall enable an inclusive and interdisciplinary work. scheme horizontal cooperation

Case Study Plan Misiones

One of the core institutions operating in the Chiquitania region is Plan Misiones, a non- governmental Organization in charge of the integral rehabilitation of the tangible and intangible cultural heritage of the former Chiquito Missions. The design of the information system for the Chiquitos Network of Municipalities started here as an information and management system for the integral protection of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Missions of Chiquitos". It shall provide a first pilot example of the capabilities of the system. Mass Collaboration & Collective Intelligence The basic idea of the envisioned Data Scheme for the Institutional Network of Chiquitos is to enable in future a virtual project workspace, stored in the cloud, accessible from anywhere for stakeholders to manipulate, update and use in their day to day activities. Open Geospatial Consortium Standards (or similar ones) can be applied to support data standardisation and peer review monitoring. Digital Planning as Instrument The virtual project workspace is just an additional instrument, which shall be adapted to meet the institutional needs of every stakeholder and not viceversa Information sharing for authorities The main motivation behind a coordinated information system is not only to avoid double efforts and reduce costs, but to share information and to make sure their activities are compatible. For the process of decision making in spatial planning it has been too often the case that the planned programmes of different authorities cannot work along each other and this is discovered too late, when making changes and adapting programmes is too expensive and too complicated. Database Management Scheme Information sharing for authorities Distributed responsibilities Each agency has to contribute with feeding micro scale data within their territory and activities. A macro database background covers the entire region and provides a reliable source for all parties. Each agency is responsible with updating data to established standards within its field and is free to use the macro data provided by other stakeholders. Data stored in the database collected in different levels of detail based on needs and capacities of each stakeholder MACRO DB examples: Analysis of development conditions of the Chiquitos Network of Municipalities The initial set up makes it also possible to combine micro and macro data to visualize different conditions and development needs, using information available from the national statistics institute INE, last updated in November 2011: Left: Provision of education infrastructure; Center: General Housing Conditions (Services and infrastructure); Right: Human Development Index 2011 (Average for Bolivia in 2011 was 0.661) (maps example micro data Santa Ana) MICRO GIS DATABASE for Santa Ana de Velasco Being the village Santa Ana de Velasco the smallest one of the World Heritage Ensemble of the "Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos" it was an ideal starting point to test the designed system and provide a pilot database on a micro level. Additionally the system was fed with intangible heritage elements (mainly regarding the cosmology vision of the Chiquitos culture), for which keywords are used to replace geographical coordinates. To this category also belong language, music and popular beliefs. Registry of existing services in Santa Ana The micro database information provides an insight about existing service and sanitary conditions in the whole village, which can be arranged in different categories and displayed for closer analysis. Even though this is a standard urban management task in industrial countries, it had been never done in any city in the entire region. Photographic Registry of cultural heritage The registry also contains a photographic record of all constructions in the historical core of the village, as well as a detailed registry of the most important monuments. Analysis of Conditions and challenges with Macro Level Data (1) Wildlife Reserve Rios Blanco y Negro (1990) Conditions: Area ~1,4M Ha, created as a "natural reserve for sustainable management and use of natural resources", rich biodiversity Challenges: Threats because of illegal logging, indiscriminate hunting and fishing, illegal growth of agricultural surfaces using slash and burn of woodlands with considerable degradation of flora and fauna. (2) Ascension de Guarayos/ Urubichá Current conditions: commercial node in the corridor Santa Cruz - Trinidad, the region embodies a strong local cultural identity. (3) San Javier Conditions: Livestock and agricultural centre, main regional producer of milk and derivatives, commercial node. (4) Concepción Current conditions: Important agriculture and farming centre (livestock), trade, tourism, logistics and mining. (5) San Ignacio de Velasco Current conditions: commercial node for agriculture and forest resources along the corridor Santa Cruz - San Matias, logistic centre of the historic Missions of Chiquitos (6) National Park Noel Kempf (1979) Current Conditons: Area ~1,5M Ha, consolidated with zoning and management plan. Several micro climates, important macro fauna and genetic pool Callenges: Unesco World Heritage Site. Pristine condition in most surface. Species catalogue is not extensive and needs abundant research, it hosts mammal 33 species in danger (including mega  fauna). Human invasion from San Ignacio and the Brazilian border needs to be contained. (7) San Matías Current conditions: Isolated agriculture and farming centre, silviculture and tourism activity. (8) Natural Area San Matias (ANMI, 1997) Conditions: Area ~3M Ha, Pantanal Bio-diversity Hotspot, contains ~100 farms and villages, 3 eco regions Challenges: Need for Zoning and legislation, habitat of species in danger. Need for redesign of limits, possibly creation of a new national park around the region of Sunsás. (9) Puerto Quijarro and Puerto Suárez Current conditions: Commercial centre, important mining activity, inland port. (10) National Park Otuquis (1997) Conditions: Only northern half under research, consolidation in progress. Challenges: Freshwater reserve for Puerto Suárez and Puerto Quijarro, compatibility with eco- tourism and hunting areas needs clear legal framework. (11) Protected Area Tupavaca Valley (2000) Conditions: Bio-diversity Hotspot with micro-climate zones. Challenges: Management plan and redesign of limits need to be completed, the hydrology system is a wildlife corridor influencing the NP Otuquis. (12) San José and Roboré Current conditions: Agricultural and services centre, logistics, intermediate node along the export corridor Bolivia-Brazil (13) National Park and natural area Kaa Iya (1995) Conditions: 3,44M Ha (north limit intersects the Chiquitos Network). World's largest tropical dry forest, mammal species hotspot, consolidated management plan. Challenges: Spatial context affected by climate change phenomena. Area of nomad indigenous tribes. Agriculture and hydrocarbon exploration cause stress and need to be adapted.
GIS & RESEARCH
Systemarchi